General concepts of karate

ORIGIN AND MEANING OF KARATE-DO

El karate-do sigue la ruta general de todas las artes marciales. De los templos de la India pasa a China hacia el año 3.000 AC., pero los datos históricos datan del año 450 de nuestra era. Hacia el año 600 DC. Pasa a la isla de Okinawa de donde llegó hasta el Japón a finales del siglo XIX, y es allí donde los maestros MABUNI, FUNAKOSHI, MIYAGUI y otros empiezan a desarrollar y codificar lo que hoy conocemos como karate moderno.

Su desarrollo físico se une el orden espiritual las prácticas del Budismo-Zen y la intuición de los maestros.

KARATE-DO significa “vía de la lucha sin armas”
KARA = vacío
TE = mano
DO = vía o camino

Pero el término KARA hace referencia a la situación anímica de pureza, equilibrio interior y liberación de los efectos morales. KARA es el vacío interior.

Seiza On knees with the insteps rested on the floor (the boys with the legs separated in 45º and the girls with the legs united).
Anza Sat with legs crossed.
Heisoku-dachi Firm legs, united and parallel, feet looking at the front.
Kaihei-dachi
(Musubi-dachi)
Firm legs and united heels, the tops of the feet look in 45º.
Heiko-dachi Separated legs, the width of the feet is the same as the shoulders, these are parallel and looking at the front.
Hachiji-dachi
(Soto-hachiji-dachi)
The legs separated to the width of the shoulders, the tops of the feet look in 45º.
Zenkutsu dachi The back leg is totally widespread and it’s foot based and looking at 45 º on the outside, the front leg is flexioned and it’s knee in perpendicularly on the instep, the width is the same as the hip.
Shiko-dachi The legs are separated to the double of the width of the shoulders and flexioned. The fingers of the feet look in 45º.
Moro-dachi The width of the feet is the same as the shoulders and it’s length, a step to the front. Normally there coincides the line of the heel of the foot advanced with that of the toes slowed down.
Neko-ashi-dachi The anticipated leg is flexioned and supported lightly on the koshi of the foot, the back strongly flexioned, the foot looks at the exterior in 45º, the length between both is that of a step approximately.
Kosa-dachi The back leg crosses behind the forward, the trunk, this one to the front.
Kake-ashi-dachi The back leg crosses behind the forward, the trunk this one lightly in hanmi.
Ipon-ashi Dachi
(Sagi-ashi Dachi,
Turo -ashi Dachi)
Position only in one leg (they exist several ways of doing it).
Naifanchin-dachi The legs are separated to one width and a half of that of the shoulders, the legs flexioned and the feet look at the front parallel, the thumbs are elevateds.
Nigeashi-dachi The distance between both feet, is like that of the Zenkutsu-dachi, the heels are in the same line and the fingers of the feet look in 45º. The anticipated leg is stretched and the back flexioned.
Kokutsu-dachi The front foot looks at the front in line with the heel of the backward foot, the anticipated leg is lightly flexioned and the heel a little detached from the floor, the backward leg is strongly flexioned and both it’s knee and it’s foot look in 45º at the exterior. In kihon, the two feet look at the front.
Sanchin-dachi The legs are separated to the width of the shoulders, the toes of the backward foot pass from the line of the heel of the anticipated foot, both feet are re-put towards the interior.
Teiji dachi The foot of the front leg looks at the front and the back 90º, the heel of the front leg coincides with the back.
Renoji-dachi The foot of the front leg looks at the front and the back 90º, the heel of the front leg coincides with the back.
Uchi-hachiji-dachi Separated legs, the width of the feet are that of the shoulders, the tops of these are re-put towards the interior.
Fudo-dachi
(Sochin-dachi)
Intermediate position between the kiba-dachi and zenkutsu-dachi, the legs are flexioned and the feet are parallel and in 45º with regard to the front, the heel of the backward leg coincides with the fingers of the anticipated leg. The trunk is in hanmi.
Hangetsu-dachi It is like Sanchin-dachi, except that the separation of the feet is like a zenkutsu-dachi and the back foot looks at the front.
Kiba-dachi Separated and flexioned legs. The width of the feet is one and a half of the shoulders and they are parallel looking at the front.
Oi-tsuki Direct with the same fist that the foot that goes forward.
Gyaku-tsuki Direct with the fist opposite to the foot that goes forward.
Ren-tsuki Oi-tsuki and gyaku-tsuki (consecutives).
Dan-tsuki Direct with the vertical fist.
Tate-ken-tsuki (Tate-tsuki) Direct with the reversed fist / direct short.
Gyaku- ken -tsuki (Ura-tsuki) Direct with the reversed fist and from the bottom up in ascending sense.
Age-tsuki Direct giving it a circular movement in the last instant.
Furi-tsuki (Mawashi-tsuki) Direct lateral to the opposite side that takes advantage of the draft of the trunk to be able to execute it.
Kagi-tsuki Sliding direct.
Hira-ken- tsuki Direct with the first phalanx of 4 fingers except the thumb.
Kumade-tsuki Direct with the hand in the shape of claw.
Teisho-tsuki (Soko-tsuki) Direct with the base of the palm of the hand.
Nodowa Direct with the portion of the hand included between the forefinger and thumb.
Yubi-tsuki Direct with the fingers in peak form.
Kakuto-uchi (Tekubi-uchi) Assault with the wrist.
Nakadaka-ken Assault with the second phalanx of the heart-finger.
Ipon-nukite Assault in nukite of the forefinger.
Nihon-nukite Assault in nukite of the forefingers and heart-finger.
Nuki-te Direct with the top of the fingers.
Atama-zuki To throb with the head.
Morote tsuki Direct in sei-ken with the parallel fists and to the same height.
Morote-nidan-tsuki Direct in sei-ken with the fists to different height.
Awase-tsuki Direct a fist in sei-ken and other one in gyaku-ken to different height (the fist in giaku is that of the anticipated leg).
Hasami-tsuki Direct in scissors.
Yoko-morote-nidan-tsuki Like morote-nidan-tsuki, attacking to a side.
Wa-uchi Indirect attacking simultaneously with both fists in kentsui.
Mae-enpi-uchi
(Mae-hizi-ate)
Elbow assault to the front (the low part of the fist looks down).
Yoko-enpi-uchi
(Yoko-hizi-ate)
Elbow assault to the side (the low part of the fist looks down).
Mawashi-enpi-uchi
(Mawashi-hizi-ate)
Circular elbow assault towards ahead (the low part of the fist looks down).
Tate-enpi-uchi
(Tate-hizi-ate)
Ascending elbow assault (the low part of the fist looks at the face).
Yoko-mawashi-enpi -uchi
(Yoko-mawashi-hizi-ate)
Elbow assault to the side from towards to backwards (the low part of the fist looks down).
Ushiro-enpi-uchi
(Ushiro-hizi-ate)
Elbow assault from towards to backwards, similar movement to the accomplishment of the hikite (the low part of the fist looks up).
THIS THROB OF ELBOW IS THE ONLY ONE THAT IS UNDERSTOOD AS DIRECT IN OUR SCHOOL.
Ura-ken Indirect with Ura-ken to the front.
Ura-ken-mawashi-uchi Indirect with Ura-ken attacking horizontally.
Ura-ken-uchi-age Indirect with Ura-ken attacking from the bottom up.
Tetsui-uchi (Kentsui-uchi) Indirect attacking with the exterior part of the fist (hammer fist).
Ura-tetsui-uchi (Ura-kentsui-uchi) Indirect attacking with the internal part of the fist (Hammer of the thumb).
Shuto-uchi Indirect with the external side of the hand.
Haito-uchi Indirect with the internal side of the hand.
Keito-uchi Indirect with the base of the thumb.
Uchi-haito-uchi Attacking from the exterior to the interior.
Soto-haito-uchi Attacking from the interior to the exterior.
Barate-uchi Assault with the palm of the hand and fingers.
Yubi-uchi (Washide-uchi) Assault with the fingers in peak form but circular form.
Soko-Uchi With the base of the palm of the hand but in circular form.
Mikasuki-uke Defence with the sole from the exterior to the interior.
Mikasuki-gaishi-uke Defence with the side of the foot from the interior on the outside.
Fumikiri-uke Defence with the external side of the foot.
Fumikomi-uke Defence with the sole.
Hiza-uke Defence with the knee.
Uchi-hiza-uke Defence with the knee of the exterior to the interior.
Soto-hiza-uke Defence with the knee of the interior on the outside.
Nami-gaeshi-uke Defence with the calf.
Kakato-uke Defence with the heel of the foot.
Mae geri-kekomi Penetrating kick to the front with the koshi of the foot.
Sokuto-geri-kekomi Assault to the front with the side of the foot.
Yoko-geri kekomi Assault to the side with the side of the foot.
Ushiro-geri-kekomi Attack backward with the base of the heel of the foot.
Mae-tobi-geri Attacking with Mae-geri (in jump).
Yoko-tobi-geri Attacking to the side with the side of the foot (in jump).
Mae-ashi-geri-kekomi Assault to the front with the anticipated leg.
Ura keage Mai-keage to the side.
Fumikomi Assault with the sole to level sai-gedan (stamp).
Fumikiri Assault with the side of the foot to level gedan and sai-gedan.
Kin-geri Assault to the front with the koshi of the foot, Attack at the level of the testicles.
Mae-geri-keage Assault to the front with the koshi of the foot.
Mai-keage Assault to the front with the leg stretched at the level of the face.
Momo-geri Circular assault up to down at the level of the internal thigh.
Sankaku-geri Triangular assault from the bottom up at the level of the kidneys.
Mawashi-geri Circular assault of leg with the koshi (kihon) or with the haishu (deportive).
Ushiro-keage Attack backward with the kakato raising only the low half of this one.
Ushiro-mawashi-geri Circular assault in inverse draft attacking with ashi-no-ura or with the kakato.
Ura-mawashi-geri (Giaku-mawashi-geri) Circular assault to the inverse front with ashi no-ura.
Mikashuki-geri Circular assault at the head from outwards to inwards at the level of the breastbone.
Mikashuki-gaishi Circular assault at the head from inwards to outwards at the level of the breastbone.
Kakato-geri-otoshi Assault in descending sense with the kakato.
Mawashi-tobi-geri Mawashi in jump technique.
Ushiro-mawashi-tobi-geri Ushiro-mawashi in jump technique.
Sankaku-tobi-geri Sankaku in jump technique.
Ashi

Foot

Ashi-kubi

Ankle

Ashi-no-Koshi

Base of the fingers

Haisoku

Instep

Sokuto/ashi-gatana

Exterior side of the foot

Mikazuki/ashi-no-ura

Interior side of the foot

Kakato

Heel

Tsumasaki

Top of the fingers

Hiza

Knee

Ashi-no-zoko

Sole

Sei-ken With the knuckles of the forefingers and heart-finger.
Ura-ken With the top part of the fist.
Tetsui (Ken-Tsui) With the external part of the fist.
Hiraken With 2 phalanx of 4 fingers.
Kumade With the hand in claw form.
Ipon-ken With only one knuckle.
Nakadaka-ken With 2 phalanx of the finger heart.
Shuto With the external side of the hand.
Haito With the internal side of the hand.
Ipon nukite With the top of one only finger.
Nihon nukite With the top of two fingers.
Nuki-te (Yon-Hon) With the top of the fingers.
Teisho With the base of the palm of the hand.
Kakuto With the top part of the wrist (doubled).
Seiruto With the base of the exterior side of the hand.
Hizi ó Enpi With the elbow (in it’s variants).
Atama (Zuzu-Ki) With different parts of the head.
Agete High defence raising the arm from the hikite up to the height of the forehead, crossing with another arm at the level of the stomach.
Gedan barai Sweep to level gedan from the interior to the outside.
Soto-uke Defence to level chudan with the Mai-wan of the arm in a movement from the interior to the exterior.
Uchi-uke Defence to level chudan with the Gai-wan of the arm in a movement from the exterior to the interior.
Shuto-uke Defence with the side of the hand, in a circular movement from upwards to downwards.
Kurite Grasp of the arm of uke (with the part included between the thumb and index) in a surrounding movement.
Kakete Grasp of the karategi of uke doubling the first phalanxes in the shape of hook.
Sukuite (Sukui-uke) Defence with the haito of the hand in a movement from the bottom up.
Urate (Tekubi-kake-uke) Surrounding defence with the back of the hand.
Osaete (Osae-uke) Descending defence with the palm of the hand.
Kakuto-uke (Tekubi-uke) Defence with the wrist.
Teisho-uke Defence with the base of the palm of the hand.
Haishu-uke Slide defence with the back of the hand.
Keito-uke Defence with the base of the thumb.
Haito-uke Defence with the haito of the hand.
Seiryuto-uke Descending defence with the base of the exterior side of the hand (shuto).
Kentsui (Tettsui-uke) Descending defence with the exterior part of the fist.
Zyuzi-uke Defence with the crossed arms.
Wa-uke (Kakiwake-uke) Defence separating the arms (to yodan level).
Nagashi-uke All kinds of slide defences.
Tate-shuto-uke
(Shuto-gedan-barai)
Defence with the side of the hand (shuto) in vertical.
Soto-sukui-uke Variant of the haito defending towards the exterior.
Uchi-sukui-uke Uchi-sukui-uke Variant of the haito defending towards the interior.
Sho-osaete As osae-te with a sliding movement.
Soto-gedan-kake-uke As kake-uke towards the exterior.
Uchi-gedan-kake-uke As kake-uke towards the interior.
Morote-soto-uke As soto-uke, supporting the fist of the opposite hand in the internal part of the arm at the level of the elbow approximately (the closed palm of the fist looks up).
Teisho-morote-uke
(Teisho-awashe-uke)
Double with the teisho of both hands simultaneously.
Morote-Sukui-uke With the two sukui of both hands simultaneously.
Sokumen-awase-uke Lateral defence with both hands opened simultaneously.
Ryo-sho-tsukami-uke
Double defence holding.
Uchi-hizi-uke Defence with the elbow towards the interior.
Soto-hizi-uke Exterior defence of the elbow doubling lightly the body.
Uchi-wan-nagashi-uke Sliding defence with the top part of the forearm inward.
Soto-wan-nagashi-uke Sliding defence with the exterior part of the forearm towards out.
Zen-wan-hineri-uke Defence with rotary sense of the forearm.
Zen-wan-deai-uke Defence entering with the forearm.
Fumikomi-wan-uke Descending defence with the forearm.

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